The manosphere, the red pill and alpha males: toxic masculinity in the internet age. By Joana Perrone

“Following the Brexit referendum, the election of President Trump and the French election that propelled the far right nationalist Marine Le Pen to win one third of the popular vote, many wondered how this movements had gained popular support. The constant influx of news on the so-called ‘alt-right’ and other extreme right movements (Lyons, 2017; Caldwell, 2016) highlighted the role of the internet and, particularly, internet forums, in building those political movements.

The aim of this article is to build on discussions of the role of online forums in the rise of extreme right movements (Wilkinson, 2016) to offer insight into the ways that “disenfranchised” men have found a way to bond on the internet. Furthermore, I will analyse how the devaluing of both women and specific social practices perceived as “liberal” serves to create conditions for this bonding and therefore maintains notions of masculinity that reproduce toxic discourses and practices.”

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